This headline popped up in my newsfeed this morning: Boys will be boys: Data error prompts U-turn on study of sex differences in school (Retraction Watch, 2017) The article is about a peer-reviewed article on self-regulation of study habits that was published earlier this year. In the retraction, the authors noted they had discovered a […]

Paired samples are not always obvious

Although we often think of paired samples as being the same person (thing) in a “before” and “after” treatment setting, there are some other important types of paired samples. One kind are “natural” pairings, such as spouses, siblings, and especially twins. This type of pairing is often used in medical observational research when it is […]


I know a number of you are using Excel to do the number crunching for this course. Some of your learning processes involve working through the step-by-step equations using some or many of Excel’s built-in stats functions along with some formulas. This is a good process for many folks. However, that process can be time-consuming. […]