One kind are “natural” pairings, such as spouses, siblings, and especially twins. This type of pairing is often used in medical observational research when it is difficult to construct a true experiment. (PennState, 2017)
But even more common are other types of pairing. A more accurate label for this two-sample test is a test for dependent samples. Samples are dependent when there is a relationship of some kind in play which causes the samples to not be independent.
I like this definition from the Minitab blog:
If the values in one sample affect the values in the other sample, then the samples are dependent. [Read more…] about Paired samples are not always obvious