Language of Statistics

Correlation and Chi-square Tests for Independence

The word “correlate” has several meanings, e.g. “If two or more facts, numbers, etc. correlate or are correlated, there is a relationship between them” (Cambridge Dictionary, n.d.) And “to show that a close connection exists between (two or more things)” (Merriam-Webster, 2019)  Also, “to show that two things are connected.” (Macmillan, n.d.) In statistics, we often …

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Empirical Rule and z-score Probability

Empirical Rule The Empirical Rule applies to a normal, bell-shaped curve than is symmetrical about the mean. It states that within one standard deviation of the mean (both left-side and right-side) there is about 68% of the data; within two standard deviations of the mean (both left-side and right-side) there is about 95% of the data; …

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Paired samples are not always obvious

Although we often think of paired samples as being the same person (thing) in a “before” and “after” treatment setting, there are some other important types of paired samples. One kind are “natural” pairings, such as spouses, siblings, and especially twins. This type of pairing is often used in medical observational research when it is …

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