I see a lot of students struggle with recognizing what a problem statement is asking them to do. Consider this problem:

What do you get from that reading? I get:


I like to solve these types of problems using StatCrunch®.

First, find the critical values of z using the StatCrunch normal calculator: Stat > Calculators > Normal. I prefer to use the “Between” option for two-tailed tests and enter the confidence level, c = 1- alpha, in the probability box. Here, I entered 0.9 and clicked Compute.

The resulting graph shows a red area under the curve which represents 0.9, which puts alpha/2 = 0.05 in each tail. The critical values of z are -1.645 and +1.645 and the rejection regions are z < -1.645 and z > +1.645.

Although you could solve for the test statistic manually using


and then use tables to find the p-value,

I prefer to use StatCrunch to do the entire test. Use the command sequence Stat > Z Stats > 2 Sample > With Summary.

In the dialog box that opens, enter the data for the two samples. Note: enter the population σ’s for the two samples and do not convert them to the sample standard error (standard deviation of the sampling distribution). Although you would do this if running the test “manually,” StatCrunch is set up to do this conversion for you.

Click Compute!

The test statistic is -0.900, rounding to three decimals, and the p-value is 0.368. The test statistics does not fall in the rejection regions of <-1.645 or >+1.645, therefore the decision is to not reject the null hypothesis. That is the same result the p-value tells us since it is > alpha = 0.1.

Since the alternative is the claim, I would state my conclusion as:

At the 10% significance level, there is not enough evidence to support the claim that the mean braking distance for Type 1 tires is different than Type 2 tires.

Remember, you can quickly get the confidence interval around the mean difference by clicking on the Options button at the top left of the Output window, and click on Edit. Options > Edit. Then change select Confidence Interval for µ1µ2 and enter the confidence level desired. Then, click Compute!

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