Read the problem looking for keywords and values:

- What type of variable is the focus of the problem? Is it quantitative, e.g. a mean, or categorical, e.g. a proportion or percent?
- How many variables are of concern?
- Is(are) the population(s) standard deviation, sigma, given?
- Are sample variances equal or are you instructed to assume they are equal?
- What is(are) the sample size(s)?
- Is a claim or proposition mentioned?
- Are you given summary statistics or raw data?

Example 1:

At many golf clubs, a teaching professional provides a free 10-minute lesson to new customers. A golf magazine reports that golf facilities that provide these free lessons gain, on average, $2100 in green fees, lessons, or equipment expenditures. A teaching professional believes that the average gain exceeds 2,100, and collects data (shown below in the solution examples) on the gain from 15 clubs in his area. At the 0.05 level of significance, does the data support the claim?

What should you glean from reading the problem statement? [Read more…] about Recognizing problem types: Hypothesis tests