Download a PDF with the step-by-step instructions for finding the confidence interval for a population mean, μ, using StatCrunch.

# BUS 503

## Paired samples are not always obvious

Although we often think of paired samples as being the same person (thing) in a “before” and “after” treatment setting, there are some other important types of paired samples.

One kind are “natural” pairings, such as spouses, siblings, and especially twins. This type of pairing is often used in medical observational research when it is difficult to construct a true experiment. (PennState, 2017)

But even more common are other types of pairing. A more accurate label for this two-sample test is a test for *dependent *samples. Samples are dependent when there is a relationship of some kind in play which causes the samples to not be independent.

I like this definition from the Minitab blog:

If the values in one sample affect the values in the other sample, then the samples are dependent. [Read more…] about Paired samples are not always obvious

## Chi-square Goodness of Fit test

Consider the following problem:

A research firm claims that the distribution of the days of the week that people are most likely to order food for delivery is different from the distribution seen in the past. You randomly select 494 people and record which day of the week each is most likely to order food for delivery. The table below also shows the results of your count. At alpha, α, = 0.05, test the research firm’s claim.

This sounds like a test of Goodness of Fit between the historical pattern and the observed pattern.

The claim is that the actual pattern and the historical pattern are different. That means we need the inequality math operator, which, in turn, means the **claim is the alternative hypothesis**.

Stating our two hypotheses: [Read more…] about Chi-square Goodness of Fit test

## Are rabbits normal?

This is a great video on the normal curve and the central limit theorem.

## Normal Distribution Problem- Two Common Mistakes

I see many students in my intro statistics courses missing problems related to the normal distribution. One especially common mistake is not using the correct “standard deviation” to find probabilities and percentiles.

Consider the following problem statement:

A bank auditor claims that credit card balances are normally distributed, with a mean of $2870 and a standard deviation of $900.

- What is the probability a randomly selected credit card holder has a card balance less than $2500?
- You randomly select 25 credit card holders. What is the probability that their mean card balance is less than $2500?
- Interpret the two probabilities in terms of the auditor’s claim.

I usually see students get one of the questions correct, but not all. And they either seem to get #1 or #2 correct in about equal proportions. When I inspect their solutions, I find that they get confused over the “standard deviation” to use in the equation for z.

Most students seem to get #1 correct. They use the formula for z: [Read more…] about Normal Distribution Problem- Two Common Mistakes

## Normal Distribution: Example Problem 1

One way to improve your ability to solve normal distribution problems is to work on recognizing what word problems are requesting you to do.

Consider the following problem statement:

In an investigation of the personality characteristics of drug dealers of a certain region, convicted drug dealers were scored on a scale that provides a quantitative measure of person’s level of need for approval and sensitivity to social situations. (Higher scores indicate a greater need for approval.) Based on the study results, it can be assumed that the scale scores for the population of convicted drug dealers of the region has a mean of 44 and a standard deviation of 7. Suppose that in a sample of 96 people from the region, the mean scale score is x̅ = 46. Is this sample likely to have been selected from the population of convicted drug dealers of the region? Explain. Consider an event with a probability less than 0.05 unlikely. (McClave, Benson, & Sincich, 2014)

Solution:

First, state the question: How unusual would it be to get a sample mean of 46 if the population mean is 44 and the population standard deviation is 7? [Read more…] about Normal Distribution: Example Problem 1